3/ Practical advice on maintaining a healthy diet

  • Fruit and vegetables

Eating at least 400 g, or five portions, of fruit and vegetables per day reduces the risk of NCDs and helps to ensure an adequate daily intake of dietary fibre

Fruit and vegetable intake can be improved by.

-always including vegetables in meals*
-Eat fruits and vegetables as secondary meals*
-Eat fruits and vegetables when they are in season*
-eating a variety of fruit and vegetables.

  • Fats

Reducing total fat to less than 30% of total energy intake prevents unhealthy weight gain in the adult population (1, 2, 3). In addition, the risk of developing NCDs is reduced by

  • Reducing impregnated fats to less than 10% of total energy intake;
  • Reducing trans fats to less than 1 of total energy intake; and
  • Replacing impregnated fats and trans fats with unsaturated fats (2, 3), especially polyunsaturated fats.
    The use of fats, especially industrially produced impregnated and trans fats, can be reduced by the following means

When cooking, instead of frying, boiling or simmering;
Replacing adulation, lard and ghee with liniments rich in polyunsaturated fats, such as soy, rapeseed, slurry, safflower and sunflower fats
consuming reduced-fat dairy products and saving meat or reducing visible fat in meat
limiting consumption of fried and snack foods and prepackaged foods (e.g., doughnuts, patties, cakes, eye fillings, cookies and waffles) that contain industrially produced trans fats.

  • Sugars

In both grown-ups and children, free sugar input should be reduced to lower than 10 of total energy input (2, 7). A reduction to lower than 5 of total energy input would give fresh health benefits (7).

Consumption of free sugars increases the threat of dental caries. Redundant calories from foods and potables high in free sugars also contribute to unhealthy weight gain, which can lead to fat and rotundity. Recent substantiation also shows that free sugars affect blood pressure and serum lipids and suggests that reducing free sugar input reduces threat factors for cardiovascular complaint (13).
Sugar input can be reduced by the following means

Limiting consumption of sugar-rich foods and potables, similar as sticky snacks, delicacy, and candied potables ( i.e., all types of potables containing free sugar, including carbonated andnon-carbonated tonics, fruit and vegetable authorities and drinks, liquid and pulverized concentrates, seasoned waters, energy and sports drinks, ready-to- drink tea, ready-to- drink coffee, and seasoned milk drinks).
Eat fresh fruit and raw vegetables as snacks rather than sticky snacks.

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